by Nervana Mahmoud
( Photo via AFP)
Initially published in Fikra Forum
Many self-proclaimed liberals in Egypt supported the military’s intervention in July 2013 that led to President Muhammad Morsi’s ouster. Their stance has baffled many Western observers, who wonder how anyone with liberal values can support an oppressive coup that removed a democratically elected president. There is no easy answer to this question, but an examination of Egypt’s contemporary evolution may explain the state of mind and perplexing behavior of the liberals who have coalesced around Egypt’s new president, Abdul Fattah al-Sisi.
The concept of the Egyptian military as a “liberal force” originated during the rule of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the founder of contemporary Egypt. Historically, themilitary was always run by foreign warriors, known as the Mamluks. They continued to exist under the Ottoman Empire. However, they posed a threat to Muhammad Ali, the ambitious ruler of Egypt. Ali declared independence from…
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Bonnie Halsey Dutton and I have been friends for 24 years. We met at an art opening in West Chester, Pennsylvania. At the time Bonnie was new to the area and looking to connect with fellow artists. The rest is history. We have been good friends ever since.
I have travelled to Bonnie’s home in Spearfish, South Dakota and Bonnie has stayed with me in Wales and London. We have also enjoyed working and playing in France with our mutual artist friend Mariethe Salort.
Bonnie is currently studying at the University of Arizona…and several months ago conducted an online interview with me on how I use the internet and social media for my work in general and more specifically for teaching purposes. As part of the same project she made this video.
Enjoy Bonnie’s beautiful work on her…
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